This is a nonmalignant disease, which is characterized by the growth of the endometrium into the muscular layer of the uterus deeper than to 1 mm. In some cases, it goes in line with endometriosis – pathological proliferation of the mucous membrane out of the uterine cavity.
The accurate cause of this disease has not been established. It is only certain that this situation results from inadequately high level of estrogen in combination with previous affection of endometrium (including normal pregnancy, during which the fetus invades the mucous membrane, disturbing its integrity).
Adenomyosis takes an asymptomatic course in one-third of patients, while other women observe prolonged periods and profuse bleeding between periods. Some women may experience signs of pressure of the swollen uterus on the urinary bladder and straight intestine, leading to the necessity of frequently going to the bathroom.
It should be noted that adenomyosis affects the type of cells (basal), which do not have any role in the normal estrogen-dependent menstrual cycle. This fact is extremely important, since it makes this disease responsive to hormonal therapy. Only the specialist can decide whether such therapy will be sufficient for the elimination of adenomyosis, or surgical intervention should also be applied.