In the majority of women, periods are preceded by the so-called premenstrual syndrome. It involves physical and psychological symptoms. In some cases, the woman might experience PMS symptoms but have no period after it. This can have several causes. Certainly, pregnancy is the first reason to this. Further, relatively normal conditions, should be mentioned. They include premenopausal period, adjustment to hormones and climatic changes. Besides, there are at least 7 pathological causes of having PMS but no period.
The PMS syndrome is, in fact, a complex of symptoms, which are observed in the second half of the menstrual cycle and have an endless number of presentations, including:
- Weight gain;
- Disturbed defecation (diarrhea or constipation);
- Mood swings;
- Painful and engorged breasts;
About 90% of women observe period symptoms, while 5% of them are not able to work during their periods. But what if there is PMS but no period?
Pregnancy is the classical condition of having no period
When following fertilization of the ovum and its adhesion to the mucous lining of the uterus, childbearing gathers some pace, rapid hormonal transformations in the organism can provoke symptoms, which are very much like period symptoms. Particularly, women may experience mood swings, changes in the libido, food cravings, chronic fatigue or weight fluctuations.
At that, it doesn’t matter (on a scale of endocrine regulation) whether it is the case with normally developing pregnancy or for example a hydatidiform mole – pathology, which involves ovum’s development without an embryo. Another pathology involves adhesion of the fetus not to the uterine wall, but for example to the tube. The clinical picture in early stages is similar to that of the previous case – the delay of period can be preceded by the above-mentioned symptoms.
In order to dispel doubts, you can consult a gynecologist or take a home pregnancy test on the first day of the “overdue” period.
Pathological conditions, which are accompanied by PMS but no period
After excluding the version of pregnancy, other causes of the delay can be considered:
- Corpus luteum cyst is a nonmalignant swelling of the yellow body, which is actually nothing else but the follicle after ovulation. Apart from a delay, it comes out in abdominal pain and can be complicated with twisting or abruption. This pathology usually requires hormonal medication;
- Polycystic ovary syndrome is accompanied by anovulation, oligomenorrhea (scanty periods), amenorrhea (period without blood), hirsuties (pathological hirsuteness, mainly in places, not typical for women – on face, breasts, buttocks, etc) and obesity. In order to correct this pathology the doctor usually prescribes oral contraceptives;
- Adhesive processes in the uterus and the cervix result from past manipulations (Caesarean operation, abortion) or inflammation (cervicitis, endometritis). If the scars appear immediately on the endometrial lining, it becomes unable to prepare itself to pregnancy, that is to say, it is not expanded and rejected at the beginning of the cycle, which leads to a period without blood. If the adhesions are located in the uterine cervix, the proliferation process does take place, but menstrual blood cannot be discharged due to mechanical obstruction. In this case, the PMS is rather painful. Treatment of adhesions is mostly surgical;
- Anemia, especially on the background of hemorrhage, is a possible cause of absence of the period in one or more cycles;
- Stress, physical or psychological. Exhaustive workouts or powerful shock may affect hormonal activity in the organism and result in a cycle with no period. In such cases, the woman simply needs rest;
- Rapid weight loss causes delay of periods, since lipocytes (fat cells) are vital for endocrine regulation. They are natural depositories of some hormones; thus their inadequate decrease results in PMS symptoms but no period;
- Complications due to certain contraceptive methods, such as an intrauterine This kind of problems is resolved individually with the help of a gynecologist.
Relatively normal conditions, involving no period
Apart from pregnancy, delay of menstruation can be observed in such periods as pre-menopause, adaptation to a new climate and adjustment to certain drugs, including hormonal contraceptives. In such cases, the period without blood should not give rise to serious concerns. Since the first variant simply assumes eventual decline of the reproductive function while the second case can be eliminated by rest and the rational regimen. The condition of no period, which associated with manipulation of hormonal levels, is sometimes done deliberately. For example, for the sake of having good holidays or for a certain event. Therefore, it does not require correction. Nevertheless, one should keep in mind that “breaking” the cycle should by no means have a regular nature.
In any case, it is important to remember that reoccurring periods without blood, especially with distinct period symptoms, should be a reason for an unscheduled visit to a gynecologist. Moreover, one should immediately seek medical help in case the mentioned symptoms go in line with acute pain, fever or fleeting mental blankness.